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HDCP, High -Bandwidth Digital Content Protection: Beginners Guide

Background: High Definition digital video allows users to experience high resolution, near perfect video content. As more content is delivered digitally, the content creators are increasingly concerned with content piracy because digital content can be perfectly duplicated. Therefore anti-piracy safeguards such, as High Bandwidth Content Protection (HDCP) is necessary in order for original content creators to protect their assets. In this article we will touch on the key points of HDCP

What is HDCP: High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection, HDCP, is an encryption scheme developed to defend against uncontrolled copying of digital content over high bandwidth digital interconnects such as DVI and the HDMI. The FCC approved HDCP as a "Digital Output Protection Technology" on August 4th, 2004. A HDCP protected system consists of: 1) HDCP transmitter (DVD player for example), 2) the digital interface (DVI or HDMI), and 3) the HDCP receiver (your display monitor). In brief, the content is encrypted at the transmitter and the signal is passed to the HDCP receiver (display) via the DDC lines (in essence an I2C bus) where it is decrypted before viewing. HDCP requires that both the transmitter and the receiver comply with standards. If either one does not comply, the video will not be displayed properly. Incidentally, HDCP does not apply to analog interface such as component video although component video can be used to display high definition video.

Why should the consumer care about HDCP: It is highly recommended that consumers be aware of HDCP and purchase sets that are HDCP compliant. Here is why. It has been speculated that the two competing high definition DVD standards HD DVD, and BLUE RAY, due out in 2006 will only deliver full resolution on HDCP protected outputs such as HDMI or DVI. If true, then users must have a HDCP monitor in order to experience full resolution HD DVD technology. Therefore it is prudent for the consumer to select HDCP compliant displays so the display can be used with future applications.

What is involved during a HDCP session: HDCP is a complicated process but can be broken down to 3 key functions: Authentication, Encryption, and Renewability

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Authentication: The first step before video is actually sent is for the HDCP transmitter to determine if the receiver is "authorized" to accept HDCP protected content. Stored in the PROM of each transmitter and receiver is an array of 40, 56-bit secret keys and a 40-bit entity called Key Selection Vector. Authentication requires that the transmitter and receiver pair exchange "secret keys" and key selection vectors. The keys are scrambled and never revealed. The math behind the encryption allows each half to calculate a resultant number, call it Rs, based on the key exchanges. The Rs value is then shared and compared. If the Rs value matches, the receiver is accepted as an authorized HDCP receiver and video transmission can start.

Encryption/Transmission: Once authentication is completed, transmission of the video content can commence. To prevent an unauthorized receiver from receiving the content, the video data must be encrypted prior to transmission. At the transmitter end, the video data bits are exclusive-ored with a shared calculated number lets call it Rt ( Rt is similar to how Rs was calculated) and sent to the receiver. At the receiver end the encrypted data is again exclusive-ored with Rt. Since the XOR function is invertible, XORing with the same Rt at the receiver end will reveal the true unscrambled video bits. Incidentally, a new Rt value is calculated about every 2 second to prevent corruption due to hacking.

Renewability: renewability futhur ensures that the private keys are not exposed to unauthorized users due to tampering.

Conclusion: HDTV technology is changing rapidly. Content providers need to protect against piracy by implementing HDCP. HDCP and digital connection standards such as HDMI will become the de facto standard for digital video connections. We have outlined the important features of HDCP, so the consumer can make intelligent purchasing decisions.

About the Writer of this Article

Jeff Su is product marketing manager at Octava Inc. Jeff is a graduate of the Georgia Institute of Technology (BSEE, MSEE) and has over 10 years of experience in CATV systems, RF, and microwave designs. He may be reached at

Show me the Money! with Mobile Content

Mobile product sales around the globe have recently sky rocketed and this trend is expected to continue. Experts say that this is only the beginning of an expanding market that will soon incorporate significantly more than just the ability to have phone conversations. You can already send text messages, download ringtones and wallpapers, play a variety of games and even surf the internet on these familiar handset devices. So what's next?

Larry Lehoux, an expert in mobile communications and CEO of the Data Corp predicts that it's only a matter of time before the entertainment industry takes full advantage of the mobile market. "Over the next few years cell phones will transform into fully functionally entertainment devices- there is evidence of this already with the incorporation of MP3 players into these handheld devices. All cell phones will soon be able to download and play full length songs and even movie clips. The multi-billion dollar gaming industry will play a good hand in this market as well. With the blink of an eye our current simplistic mobile games will retire only to be replaced by captivating games that will appeal to the public at large."

It's no accident that Lehoux has created the product Mobiletoolbox to assist entrepreneurs in gaining access to this multi-billion dollar market. "There is a lot of money to be made out there and so far this has been reserved for big corporations who have access to cell phone carriers, aggregators and expensive short codes," says Lehoux. "There are definitely a lot of complications that arise when dealing with content compatibility and price differences among the individual carriers, but Mobiletoolbox takes care of all those headaches and frustrations and allows clients to take full advantage of the market."

Mobiletoolbox users have been taking their slice of the mobile content market. They have the ability to create and sell their own unique content but they also have access to distribute licensed content through Mobiletoolbox's Content Library that includes a lot of the latest in popular music, movie paraphernalia and name brands. Customers are making up to 65% of the retail price of their mobile content and this puts a big smile on their faces. To get more information about the mobile industry or about Mobiletoolbox, please visit their web site at or call them toll free at 1-877-410-6683.

About the Writer of this Article

The Data Corp

Getting Content for Your Site Free and Easy

Getting Content for Your Site Free and Easy by Andre Best

Any avid web site owner knows how critical it is to have a web site that contains large amounts of genuine 'content'. These days a web site pretty much lives or dies by the amount of content it has on it. A simple and brutal truth of today's Internet is that a site without increasing amounts of frequently updated content is not deemed important enough to merit frequent spidering by the Search Engines.

Successful search engine optimization experts tout that in today's online environment a web site is successful because of several sequential steps occurring naturally online. That is...

- increased web site content creates more search engine indexing opportunities, which results in more opportunities for organic search engine traffic;
- more search engine traffic leads to more online popularity and subsequently, increased viral online linking;
- this increased linking to a web site results in more perceived relevancy by the search engines and, again, higher organic search engine listings; and,
- finally, these higher listings lead to more traffic, and the cycle continues.

So how does a web site owner deal with this fact of doing business online? Simple. By providing an ever-increasing amount of content on their web site.

But if you own several web sites you understand how great a challenge it can be to be able to provide constantly updated, valid and useful content, usually in substantially large quantities via hundreds or thousands of webpages, for your web site's visitors and information seekers.

So the way to solve this dilemma for most webmasters is to use content written by others. But the most common route to getting this type of information is to have to pay for a ghostwriter to write the content. This can get expensive so, again, one's web site's content volume suffers.

Some webmasters use RSS feeds to scrape content from other web sites, but to build static webpages from the scraped content can get into legal issues so this tactic can be rather risky.

And for those webmasters brave enough to write the needed content themselves usually face a difficult mountain to climb. That is, these days it's very tough to actually find the time or have the knowledge to do this. One can only write so many pages on the same topic before experiencing writer's 'burnout'.

So what would be the answer to this apparent dilemma of needing lots of web site content but not having lasting viable routes to obtaining the needed content? Simple.

Grab content from free article directories. An article directory is specially designed for web site owners and publishers to legally and freely take copyrighted articles, written by online authors willing to share their writings, and post on their web site as content.

And one can find hundreds of article directories available on the Internet today and most have only one condition of use: there are terms of usage that web site owners agree to follow before using the articles from the article directory. But outside of that there are no other restrictions, and no 'memberships' required.

So, in view of the issues surrounding creating content for one's web site, as described above, and the absolutely necessity for a web site to have voluminous and fresh content to stay ranked highly in the Search Engines, one can easily see how the free articles found at an article directory can be just the answer a web site owner needs to give their web sites a needed boost with the Search Engines.

No more having to pay for content. And no more struggling with writing the content yourself. Use whatever information you find at the article directory that you deem relevant and post it on your web site, or weblog , or forum.

Article directories. Free on-topic content for YOUR web site. YOUR weblog . YOUR ezine. YOUR forum. Cool.

Written by Andre Best
President, Ultimate Results, Inc. - THE Premier Site for Articles AND Authors

(Author's permission is granted to share this full article with others. Just leave the signature line intact, please.)

Hey, please visit the Internet Marketing web sites:

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